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EPS应急电源应用
发布时间 :2015-1-13 10:43:14

1.1EPS应急(ji)电源的分类

    目前(qian)市场(chang)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)EPS应(ying)(ying)急电(dian)源品牌众多,大家在设(she)计上(shang)所采用(yong)的(de)(de)(de)控(kong)制方式(shi)和(he)控(kong)制手段不尽(jin)相同,但针对所带负载的(de)(de)(de)种类(lei)大致(zhi)可以归纳为(wei)以下(xia)三种:一是主要用(yong)于(yu)应(ying)(ying)急照(zhao)明和(he)事(shi)故(gu)照(zhao)明的(de)(de)(de)单相EPS;二(er)是用(yong)于(yu)应(ying)(ying)急照(zhao)明、事(shi)故(gu)照(zhao)明之(zhi)外(wai),还有应(ying)(ying)用(yong)于(yu)空调、电(dian)梯、卷帘门、排(pai)气风机、水泵等电(dian)感(gan)性负载或(huo)兼而有之(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)混合供(gong)电(dian)的(de)(de)(de)三相系(xi)列EPS;三是直接给电(dian)动(dong)机供(gong)电(dian)的(de)(de)(de)变频系(xi)列EPS。

1.2EPS应急电源(yuan)的设计要求

    EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)可以说(shuo)是(shi)近两年才迅猛(meng)发展起(qi)来的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)个新兴产业,相(xiang)(xiang)比于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)发展成(cheng)熟的(de)(de)(de)UPS而(er)(er)言,有(you)(you)(you)相(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)之处,也有(you)(you)(you)不(bu)同(tong)之处。其相(xiang)(xiang)同(tong)点在(zai)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)都具备(bei)在(zai)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)故障(中(zhong)断(duan))情况(kuang)下继续(xu)向(xiang)负(fu)载提供(gong)(gong)交流电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),均采用(yong)了IGBT逆(ni)变(bian)(bian)技术和(he)脉(mai)宽调制(PWM)技术。不(bu)同(tong)之处是(shi)UPS除了提供(gong)(gong)不(bu)间(jian)断(duan)供(gong)(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)外,还兼备(bei)改(gai)善(shan)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)品质的(de)(de)(de)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),而(er)(er)EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)则(ze)(ze)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)解决市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)故障时的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)供(gong)(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)问题;UPS主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)是(shi)为(wei)(wei)IT行业设备(bei)提供(gong)(gong)用(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)保障,EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)则(ze)(ze)适(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)各种行业;UPS供(gong)(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)模式要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求切换(huan)时间(jian)很短(0~10ms),EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)则(ze)(ze)相(xiang)(xiang)对较(jiao)宽(0~4s);UPS主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)带计算(suan)机类负(fu)载,而(er)(er)EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)所带负(fu)载混(hun)杂;UPS对于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)运(yun)行环(huan)境(jing)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求较(jiao)高,EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)则(ze)(ze)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求能(neng)(neng)适(shi)(shi)(shi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)各种环(huan)境(jing);UPS以一(yi)般用(yong)户监控为(wei)(wei)主(zhu),EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)用(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)供(gong)(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)求与(yu)(yu)消防(fang)(fang)联(lian)动(dong);UPS以维护(hu)信(xin)息传输(shu)畅通为(wei)(wei)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de),EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)以防(fang)(fang)范重大灾(zai)难事故为(wei)(wei)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)。可以形象地比喻,UPS以“救数据”为(wei)(wei)主(zhu),而(er)(er)EPS以“救人(ren)”为(wei)(wei)主(zhu)。一(yi)般EPS功(gong)(gong)率较(jiao)大,机内的(de)(de)(de)逆(ni)变(bian)(bian)器处于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)备(bei)用(yong)状态(tai)。鉴于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)EPS应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源(yuan)(yuan)的(de)(de)(de)主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)设计思(si)想是(shi)在(zai)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)突然中(zhong)断(duan)时提供(gong)(gong)安(an)全(quan)可靠的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)供(gong)(gong)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying),有(you)(you)(you)效(xiao)避免发生灾(zai)害时的(de)(de)(de)人(ren)身伤亡和(he)财产损(sun)失为(wei)(wei)原(yuan)则(ze)(ze)。因此,在(zai)设计EPS时应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)着重考虑(lv)其安(an)全(quan)性、可靠性、适(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)性及合理(li)性。主(zhu)要(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)(yao)有(you)(you)(you):1)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)转换(huan)时间(jian)一(yi)般在(zai)毫秒(miao)级(25ms),以保证供(gong)(gong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)及时性;2)负(fu)载适(shi)(shi)(shi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)强,包括电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)容性、电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)感性、混(hun)合型负(fu)载,而(er)(er)且(qie)过载能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)和(he)抗(kang)冲击能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)强;3)有(you)(you)(you)多路(lu)输(shu)出,防(fang)(fang)止(zhi)输(shu)出单(dan)一(yi)形成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)故障;4)有(you)(you)(you)消防(fang)(fang)联(lian)动(dong)和(he)远程控制信(xin)号(hao),可手动(dong)与(yu)(yu)自动(dong)相(xiang)(xiang)互转换(huan);5)环(huan)境(jing)适(shi)(shi)(shi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)强,适(shi)(shi)(shi)用(yong)于(yu)(yu)(yu)(yu)各种恶劣(lie)环(huan)境(jing),有(you)(you)(you)防(fang)(fang)止(zhi)高低温、湿热(re)、盐雾、灰(hui)尘、震动(dong)及鼠咬等(deng)措施;6)使用(yong)寿(shou)命长,有(you)(you)(you)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池快(kuai)速充电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)和(he)管理(li)能(neng)(neng)力(li)(li);7)节能(neng)(neng),运(yun)行效(xiao)率高,运(yun)行成(cheng)本低;8)有(you)(you)(you)无(wu)人(ren)值守(shou)、自动(dong)操作功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng);9)报警(jing)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)齐(qi)全(quan),能(neng)(neng)及时提供(gong)(gong)各种异(yi)常状况(kuang)的(de)(de)(de)报警(jing);10)有(you)(you)(you)强启动(dong)功(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),避免电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池环(huan)节保护(hu)后无(wu)法启动(dong);11)无(wu)烟雾、无(wu)噪音、无(wu)公害等(deng);12)维护(hu)简单(dan),维护(hu)费用(yong)低。

1.3EPS应(ying)急电源(yuan)的(de)设计原理

    1)应急照(zhao)(zhao)明(ming)和事故照(zhao)(zhao)明(ming)类照(zhao)(zhao)明(ming)型的EPS一般以(yi)单相为主,主要为应急照(zhao)(zhao)明(ming)场(chang)合(商场(chang)、娱乐场(chang)所(suo)、办公(gong)场(chang)所(suo)、交易(yi)场(chang)所(suo)等)提供集中供电(dian)(dian),如(ru)图2所(suo)示。当(dang)输入电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)正常(chang)时,市(shi)电(dian)(dian)一路通(tong)过(guo)转换装置输出(chu)给(ji)(ji)日常(chang)照(zhao)(zhao)明(ming),另一路通(tong)过(guo)充电(dian)(dian)器给(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)池组充电(dian)(dian),当(dang)控制器检测到市(shi)电(dian)(dian)中断(duan)或(huo)(huo)异常(chang)(偏(pian)低或(huo)(huo)偏(pian)高)时,向逆变(bian)器发出(chu)启(qi)动(dong)信号,并控制互投转换装置转至逆变(bian)器输出(chu)。当(dang)然(ran),对于EPS的接法(fa)不同,还可(ke)以(yi)把EPS当(dang)作二路电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)、三路电(dian)(dian)源(yuan)使用(yong)。

    2)应急照(zhao)明(ming)及混合型(xing)(xing)负(fu)载(zai)(zai)类(lei)此类(lei)型(xing)(xing)EPS一般(ban)适用(yong)于(yu)负(fu)载(zai)(zai)性质比较复(fu)杂的场合,譬如既(ji)有照(zhao)明(ming)型(xing)(xing)负(fu)载(zai)(zai),又(you)有动力(li)型(xing)(xing)负(fu)载(zai)(zai),所(suo)以一般(ban)以三(san)相居多(duo),如图3所(suo)示。适用(yong)场合为(wei)宾馆、高层建(jian)筑(zhu)、医院、大(da)型(xing)(xing)商场等。

    3)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)专用的变频(pin)(pin)(pin)起(qi)动(dong)(dong)类(lei)(lei)(lei)此种类(lei)(lei)(lei)型EPS主要为电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)类(lei)(lei)(lei)负(fu)载而设计,避免(mian)因电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)起(qi)动(dong)(dong)过程中的大(da)(da)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流冲(chong)击(ji)而损坏设备。被广泛应用于(yu)大(da)(da)功率电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)负(fu)载,比如(ru)电(dian)(dian)(dian)梯、消防水泵、大(da)(da)型风(feng)机(ji)(ji)(ji)等(deng)。与其他EPS的不同之处是此类(lei)(lei)(lei)EPS一般只有(you)单路输(shu)出,如(ru)图4所示。当(dang)三(san)相输(shu)入(ru)市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)正(zheng)常(chang)时(shi)经整流后(hou)给(ji)(ji)逆变器提(ti)(ti)供直流电(dian)(dian)(dian),同时(shi)经充电(dian)(dian)(dian)器对电(dian)(dian)(dian)池组充电(dian)(dian)(dian);当(dang)三(san)相输(shu)入(ru)断(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)或异(yi)常(chang)时(shi),自动(dong)(dong)转由电(dian)(dian)(dian)池组给(ji)(ji)变频(pin)(pin)(pin)器提(ti)(ti)供直流电(dian)(dian)(dian)。当(dang)需要电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)负(fu)载工作时(shi),送(song)给(ji)(ji)变频(pin)(pin)(pin)器启动(dong)(dong)信(xin)号(hao)(运行信(xin)号(hao)、远(yuan)程控制信(xin)号(hao)等(deng)),变频(pin)(pin)(pin)器会立即输(shu)出。从(cong)0~50Hz变频(pin)(pin)(pin),供给(ji)(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)进(jin)行变频(pin)(pin)(pin)起(qi)动(dong)(dong),当(dang)其频(pin)(pin)(pin)率到达(da)50Hz后(hou)保持(chi)正(zheng)常(chang)运行。

1.4EPS应(ying)急电源(yuan)领域的现状

    随着科(ke)技的(de)(de)(de)不(bu)断发(fa)展,众多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)智能大厦拔(ba)地而起,人(ren)们(men)(men)在对(dui)其居(ju)住环(huan)境提(ti)出(chu)了(le)更高要求的(de)(de)(de)同时,也提(ti)出(chu)了(le)电(dian)力(li)保障和(he)消防(fang)安全(quan)问题。但EPS的(de)(de)(de)起步较(jiao)发(fa)电(dian)机和(he)UPS要晚(wan),人(ren)们(men)(men)对(dui)其认识的(de)(de)(de)程度(du)还(hai)(hai)不(bu)够,所以(yi)在众多(duo)的(de)(de)(de)应(ying)(ying)急(ji)供(gong)电(dian)场合,还(hai)(hai)是以(yi)发(fa)电(dian)机和(he)UPS为主要应(ying)(ying)急(ji)供(gong)电(dian)方式来实现EPS的(de)(de)(de)功能。就提(ti)供(gong)应(ying)(ying)急(ji)供(gong)电(dian)能力(li)而言,这两种方式已暴露出(chu)许多(duo)不(bu)足之(zhi)处(chu)。

    1)用柴(chai)(chai)(chai)(chai)油(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)组(zu)作为(wei)(wei)应急电(dian)(dian)(dian)源是目前大部分工(gong)程所采用的(de)(de)(de),也是最(zui)常见(jian)的(de)(de)(de)应急备(bei)(bei)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)源,由于柴(chai)(chai)(chai)(chai)油(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)容(rong)量较大,可(ke)并机(ji)运(yun)行且连续供电(dian)(dian)(dian)时间长,所以(yi)已经有(you)(you)(you)较长的(de)(de)(de)应用历史。然而(er),无(wu)论(lun)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)起动(dong)速度(du)有(you)(you)(you)多(duo)快(kuai),从(cong)停电(dian)(dian)(dian)后使发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)接到起动(dong)信号开(kai)始,至发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压、频率等达到稳定(ding)可(ke)以(yi)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)时为(wei)(wei)止(zhi),至少(shao)需要数(shu)十s至数(shu)min,这段时间,所有(you)(you)(you)用电(dian)(dian)(dian)设(she)备(bei)(bei)均停止(zhi)工(gong)作,就(jiu)可(ke)能造成少(shao)数(shu)设(she)备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)(de)损坏或出(chu)现生(sheng)命财产的(de)(de)(de)安全问题。而(er)EPS的(de)(de)(de)启动(dong)一(yi)(yi)般不(bu)(bu)会(hui)超过(guo)25ms,所以(yi)不(bu)(bu)会(hui)影响(xiang)设(she)备(bei)(bei)的(de)(de)(de)正(zheng)常工(gong)作。另一(yi)(yi)方面(mian),柴(chai)(chai)(chai)(chai)油(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)应用在(zai)应急供电(dian)(dian)(dian)场合,有(you)(you)(you)诸多(duo)不(bu)(bu)利之处,主要有(you)(you)(you):(1)在(zai)高层建(jian)筑中,柴(chai)(chai)(chai)(chai)油(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)组(zu)一(yi)(yi)般放在(zai)地下(xia)室(shi),设(she)计难(nan)度(du)大,造价高,配备(bei)(bei)进风、冷(leng)却、排烟、减震、消音等设(she)施都(dou)需要充(chong)分考(kao)虑;(2)存在(zai)火(huo)灾隐患。其油(you)(you)罐像一(yi)(yi)个(ge)极(ji)为(wei)(wei)危险的(de)(de)(de)“炸弹”,万一(yi)(yi)失火(huo),后果不(bu)(bu)堪设(she)想(xiang);(3)日常维护比(bi)较频繁(fan),工(gong)作量大;(4)柴(chai)(chai)(chai)(chai)油(you)(you)发(fa)(fa)电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)噪音大,产生(sheng)公害;(5)排烟中有(you)(you)(you)大量的(de)(de)(de)二氧(yang)化硫,污染严重(zhong),影响(xiang)环保。

    以负(fu)(fu)载(zai)容量为(wei)(wei)200kW为(wei)(wei)例(li),将EPS与(yu)柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组的(de)(de)性(xing)价(jia)(jia)比作一(yi)个比较。选用EPS时(shi),其(qi)额定(ding)功(gong)率(lv)与(yu)负(fu)(fu)载(zai)功(gong)率(lv)比为(wei)(wei)1:1即可,其(qi)总(zong)价(jia)(jia)约(yue)为(wei)(wei)60万(wan)元左(zuo)右。而选用柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)时(shi),其(qi)额定(ding)功(gong)率(lv)与(yu)负(fu)(fu)载(zai)功(gong)率(lv)比应为(wei)(wei)1.3~1.5:1,对200kW的(de)(de)负(fu)(fu)载(zai),柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组需250kVA规格,该(gai)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组价(jia)(jia)格为(wei)(wei)40万(wan)元左(zuo)右,但(dan)是除机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组本身价(jia)(jia)格之外(wai),还需外(wai)加(jia)其(qi)他辅助(zhu)装置费用约(yue)16~29万(wan)元,现以20万(wan)元计算,即选用柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组总(zong)价(jia)(jia)为(wei)(wei)60万(wan)元左(zuo)右。所以,二者价(jia)(jia)格相(xiang)差不多(duo)(duo)。从中也不难(nan)看出,如果EPS容量小于200kW时(shi),其(qi)价(jia)(jia)格要小于柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组的(de)(de)综合造价(jia)(jia)。目前消防(fang)应急供(gong)电(dian)(dian)场合的(de)(de)负(fu)(fu)载(zai)总(zong)容量一(yi)般(ban)在200kW以下,从投资(zi)的(de)(de)长远利益考(kao)虑(lv),EPS较柴(chai)(chai)油发(fa)电(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)组经(jing)济得多(duo)(duo)。

    2)用(yong)UPS作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)(wei)(wei)应(ying)急电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源EPS从(cong)原理结(jie)构上和(he)UPS大(da)同(tong)小异。在(zai)(zai)线式(shi)UPS不论市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)是(shi)(shi)否正(zheng)常(chang),它都(dou)一(yi)直由(you)逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),即按照(zhao)“市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)输入→整流(liu)→逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)→输出(chu)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)顺序(xu)进行,只(zhi)有在(zai)(zai)逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)故障或(huo)(huo)过载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)时(shi)(shi)才改(gai)由(you)旁路输出(chu),如图5所(suo)(suo)示。而EPS,当市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)正(zheng)常(chang)时(shi)(shi),市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)通过开(kai)关S输出(chu)给负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai),同(tong)时(shi)(shi)充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)对电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池充(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。当控制系(xi)统检(jian)测(ce)到市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)停电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)时(shi)(shi),逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)工作(zuo)(zuo),使(shi)开(kai)关S切(qie)换(huan)(huan)(huan)至逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)输出(chu)状态(tai),向负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)提(ti)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)(neng),如图6所(suo)(suo)示。从(cong)以上供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)系(xi)统图可(ke)以看出(chu),UPS是(shi)(shi)一(yi)种双变(bian)换(huan)(huan)(huan)结(jie)构的(de)(de)(de)(de)不间断(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源,主要(yao)(yao)(yao)为(wei)(wei)(wei)负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)提(ti)供稳定(ding)(ding)的(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)质量电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)能(neng)(neng)(neng),不受市(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)网的(de)(de)(de)(de)影(ying)响,而且其(qi)(qi)转(zhuan)换(huan)(huan)(huan)时(shi)(shi)间一(yi)般(ban)在(zai)(zai)10ms以内,所(suo)(suo)以,UPS被广泛应(ying)用(yong)于计算(suan)机、程控交换(huan)(huan)(huan)机、医疗设(she)(she)备及(ji)精密电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)子仪器(qi)等不能(neng)(neng)(neng)中断(duan)(duan)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)场所(suo)(suo)。但正(zheng)因(yin)为(wei)(wei)(wei)UPS不仅(jin)担负(fu)着应(ying)急供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)外,还担负(fu)着改(gai)善电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)力(li)(li)(li)品质的(de)(de)(de)(de)任(ren)务(wu),所(suo)(suo)以其(qi)(qi)逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)要(yao)(yao)(yao)连续不断(duan)(duan)地(di)工作(zuo)(zuo),使(shi)用(yong)寿命相对较(jiao)短(duan),一(yi)般(ban)为(wei)(wei)(wei)5~8年,尤(you)其(qi)(qi)是(shi)(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)(de)更换(huan)(huan)(huan)较(jiao)为(wei)(wei)(wei)频繁。另一(yi)方面(mian),UPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)逆(ni)(ni)变(bian)器(qi)长期处于工作(zuo)(zuo)中,自身的(de)(de)(de)(de)损耗(hao)较(jiao)大(da),而且对使(shi)用(yong)环境要(yao)(yao)(yao)求(qiu)很(hen)(hen)高(gao),只(zhi)能(neng)(neng)(neng)放在(zai)(zai)计算(suan)机房或(huo)(huo)空调房间里。UPS专为(wei)(wei)(wei)IT行业(ye)的(de)(de)(de)(de)计算(suan)机类(lei)(lei)(lei)和(he)通讯类(lei)(lei)(lei)负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)而设(she)(she)计,其(qi)(qi)负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)适应(ying)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)(li)不及(ji)EPS,举例说明(ming),如果应(ying)急供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)场合含有交流(liu)感应(ying)式(shi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机一(yi)类(lei)(lei)(lei)的(de)(de)(de)(de)感性负(fu)载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai),那么(me)在(zai)(zai)UPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)设(she)(she)计选型和(he)使(shi)用(yong)中就会出(chu)现很(hen)(hen)大(da)问(wen)题。由(you)于交流(liu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机的(de)(de)(de)(de)起动(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)通常(chang)是(shi)(shi)其(qi)(qi)额(e)定(ding)(ding)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)5~7倍,而UPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)过载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)能(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)(li)标准规(gui)定(ding)(ding):过载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)125%时(shi)(shi),A类(lei)(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)(wei)10min,B类(lei)(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)(wei)1min,C类(lei)(lei)(lei)为(wei)(wei)(wei)30s;过载(zai)(zai)(zai)(zai)150%时(shi)(shi)10s。如果想要(yao)(yao)(yao)UPS能(neng)(neng)(neng)承受电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)机起动(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)冲击能(neng)(neng)(neng)力(li)(li)(li),势必要(yao)(yao)(yao)增大(da)UPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)额(e)定(ding)(ding)容量,这无疑将加大(da)投资,还未必能(neng)(neng)(neng)彻底解决问(wen)题。因(yin)此,选用(yong)UPS作(zuo)(zuo)为(wei)(wei)(wei)应(ying)急电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源,工作(zuo)(zuo)既不可(ke)靠(kao),还得花费大(da)量资金。

2UPS/EPS的(de)发展趋势

2.1UPS/EPS的控制技术

    中小型(xing)UPS/EPS的AC/DC和(he)DC/AC变(bian)换大(da)多数仍采用模拟控(kong)制电路,AC/DC变(bian)换器的控(kong)制芯片大(da)多数已(yi)集成化,使用简(jian)单,工(gong)作可(ke)靠。DC/AC变(bian)换器的控(kong)制有(you)两种(zhong)基本(ben)方式,一种(zhong)是单闭(bi)环(huan)(huan)控(kong)制,另一种(zhong)是双闭(bi)环(huan)(huan)控(kong)制。前者控(kong)制电路简(jian)单,但(dan)难于(yu)实(shi)(shi)现输(shu)出端短(duan)路自动(dong)恢复(fu)。后者控(kong)制有(you)电流(liu)内环(huan)(huan)和(he)电压外环(huan)(huan),电压调节器的输(shu)出为(wei)电流(liu)调节器的给定(ding),因(yin)此,限制电流(liu)给定(ding)幅值也就(jiu)限制了逆变(bian)器的最(zui)大(da)输(shu)出电流(liu)。当前,数字控(kong)制已(yi)成为(wei)新型(xing)UPS/EPS控(kong)制技术发展的主流(liu),数字控(kong)制器具有(you)精(jing)度高,抗干扰能力(li)强,易于(yu)实(shi)(shi)现对UPS的检测(ce)、故障(zhang)诊断(duan)和(he)隔离(li),易于(yu)实(shi)(shi)现遥(yao)控(kong)遥(yao)测(ce),实(shi)(shi)现多台UPS的并联和(he)热插拔,易于(yu)实(shi)(shi)现对蓄电池的监控(kong)和(he)管(guan)理。也就(jiu)是说,计算机的介(jie)入(ru)使UPS具备(bei)了智能化,可(ke)以使其运行在最(zui)优状态(tai)。

2.1.1DSP的应(ying)用

    采用数字信号(hao)处(chu)理器(qi)(qi)(qi)(DSP)的(de)(de)(de)(de)数字PWM技(ji)术,是(shi)数字控(kong)制(zhi)技(ji)术的(de)(de)(de)(de)核心(xin),用于保证UPS/EPS输(shu)出电压的(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,即保证输(shu)出电压、频率和输(shu)出电压波形满足技(ji)术指(zhi)标的(de)(de)(de)(de)要求。数字控(kong)制(zhi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)另(ling)一个重要功能是(shi)实现UPS/EPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)初始(shi)自检和运行自检,进行故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)保护和故(gu)(gu)障(zhang)隔离,这是(shi)模拟控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)无法(fa)胜(sheng)任的(de)(de)(de)(de)。由于数字控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)灵活性,使UPS控(kong)制(zhi)器(qi)(qi)(qi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)硬(ying)件(jian)电路(lu)可(ke)(ke)以标准化,从(cong)而(er)简(jian)化了生产、使用和维修,也大(da)大(da)提高了工作可(ke)(ke)靠(kao)性。

2.1.2控制(zhi)电路(lu)的全微(wei)处理器化

    UPS/EPS电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)是(shi)由以(yi)下几部分组成的:主电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)、驱(qu)动电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)、监控(kong)(kong)显(xian)(xian)示及(ji)控(kong)(kong)制保护(hu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)和(he)通(tong)信界(jie)面(mian)(mian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)。其中监控(kong)(kong)、显(xian)(xian)示及(ji)控(kong)(kong)制保护(hu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)和(he)通(tong)信界(jie)面(mian)(mian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),可以(yi)运用数(shu)字(zi)化设计技巧简化其电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),并解决原类比电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)需要(yao)调整、具有温漂及(ji)参数(shu)调整不易的缺欠。采用的方(fang)法是(shi):1)全微(wei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)器化利用微(wei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)器来执行监控(kong)(kong)、显(xian)(xian)示及(ji)控(kong)(kong)制保护(hu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)和(he)通(tong)信界(jie)面(mian)(mian)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)的功能(neng);2)半微(wei)处(chu)(chu)理(li)器化利用类比电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu)处(chu)(chu)理(li)快速反(fan)馈(kui)保护(hu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路(lu)(lu),而(er)由处(chu)(chu)理(li)器处(chu)(chu)理(li)慢速反(fan)馈(kui)、报(bao)警、显(xian)(xian)示及(ji)通(tong)信界(jie)面(mian)(mian)的功能(neng)。

2.2蓄电池(chi)技(ji)术

   蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)是(shi)UPS/EPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)心脏,不管UPS/EPS电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)路多么先(xian)进(jin),其性能(neng)(neng)(neng)最终(zhong)取(qu)(qu)决于它的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),一(yi)旦电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)失效,再好(hao)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)UPS/EPS也无(wu)法提(ti)供不间断供电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)。目(mu)前,UPS/EPS一(yi)般都(dou)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)免维(wei)护(hu)密(mi)封铅(qian)(qian)酸(suan)蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi),由于采用(yong)(yong)(yong)阴极吸收式密(mi)封技术,克服了普通蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)需要(yao)定期补(bu)水的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)缺点(dian),具有(you)“免维(wei)护(hu)”、使用(yong)(yong)(yong)方便、不污(wu)染(ran)环(huan)境、体积小、重量轻(qing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian)。它使用(yong)(yong)(yong)高(gao)氢过电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)位的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)板(ban)栅材料,减(jian)少了电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)在(zai)存放(fang)和充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)过程中(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)气(qi)体分(fen)解。正极表面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)超细玻璃纤(xian)维(wei)膜,阻(zu)止了活性物(wu)质脱落,提(ti)高(gao)了电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)寿(shou)命(ming)。安全阀的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)使蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)很少产(chan)(chan)生气(qi)体,又可使已产(chan)(chan)生的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)氧气(qi)被(bei)负(fu)极铅(qian)(qian)所吸收,使蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)无(wu)水的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)损(sun)失,达(da)到(dao)了密(mi)封免维(wei)护(hu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)目(mu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)。一(yi)般情况下,影响电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)性能(neng)(neng)(neng)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)主要(yao)因(yin)素是(shi)连(lian)续充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)连(lian)续充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)大约要(yao)减(jian)少一(yi)半(ban)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)(yong)(yong)寿(shou)命(ming)。目(mu)前国外使用(yong)(yong)(yong)一(yi)种(zhong)(zhong)ABM(AdvancedBatteryManagement)三阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)管理方案,即充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)分(fen)成三个(ge)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan):第一(yi)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)是(shi)恒流(liu)均衡充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),将电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)容量充(chong)(chong)(chong)到(dao)90%;第二阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)是(shi)浮充(chong)(chong)(chong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),将电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)容量充(chong)(chong)(chong)到(dao)100%,然(ran)后(hou)停(ting)止充(chong)(chong)(chong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian);第三阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)是(shi)自然(ran)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),在(zai)这个(ge)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)里(li),电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)利用(yong)(yong)(yong)自身的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)漏(lou)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)放(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian),一(yi)直到(dao)规定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)下限,再重复上述(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)三个(ge)阶(jie)段(duan)(duan)(duan)。这种(zhong)(zhong)方式改变了以(yi)前那种(zhong)(zhong)充(chong)(chong)(chong)满电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)后(hou),仍使电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)处于一(yi)天24h的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)浮充(chong)(chong)(chong)状态(tai),因(yin)此延(yan)长了电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)寿(shou)命(ming)。金属化镍(nie)氢电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)具有(you)高(gao)能(neng)(neng)(neng)量密(mi)度(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian),而且又无(wu)镍(nie)镉(ge)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)可能(neng)(neng)(neng)造成的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)镉(ge)污(wu)染(ran),将其应用(yong)(yong)(yong)于UPS/EPS可以(yi)收到(dao)小型轻(qing)量化的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)优点(dian)。但其缺点(dian)是(shi)售价(jia)太高(gao)。美国Alupower公司研发的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高(gao)功(gong)率(lv)铅(qian)(qian)-空气(qi)备用(yong)(yong)(yong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)源装置(RPU),运行≥50h,功(gong)率(lv)从600W到(dao)6000W,电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)压(ya)有(you)DC24V和48V两(liang)种(zhong)(zhong),其能(neng)(neng)(neng)量密(mi)度(du)是(shi)铅(qian)(qian)酸(suan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)十多倍,重量只(zhi)有(you)铅(qian)(qian)酸(suan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)1/10,所占(zhan)空间只(zhi)有(you)铅(qian)(qian)酸(suan)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)1/7,有(you)望取(qu)(qu)代(dai)铅(qian)(qian)酸(suan)蓄(xu)(xu)电(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)(dian)池(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)(chi)应用(yong)(yong)(yong)于UPS/EPS。

3EPS应急电(dian)源的发展(zhan)趋势(shi)

    由于EPS所(suo)带负(fu)载(zai)类型的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)复杂性(xing)和(he)环(huan)境(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)相(xiang)对(dui)(dui)(dui)固定(ding)性(xing),针对(dui)(dui)(dui)不同(tong)(tong)场合(he)(he)、不同(tong)(tong)负(fu)载(zai),可(ke)(ke)对(dui)(dui)(dui)EPS功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)做得更贴近现(xian)实(shi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)用(yong)。其中(zhong)包括以下(xia)几方面。1)结(jie)(jie)(jie)构组成(cheng)普通EPS为了更好地结(jie)(jie)(jie)合(he)(he)实(shi)际应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)用(yong),往(wang)往(wang)采用(yong)“多合(he)(he)一(yi)”的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)结(jie)(jie)(jie)构设(she)计,但由于负(fu)载(zai)及(ji)环(huan)境(jing)(jing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)复杂性(xing),也(ye)由此(ci)带来(lai)设(she)备标(biao)准(zhun)化(hua)和(he)设(she)计院所(suo)、用(yong)户选型的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)困难。解(jie)决(jue)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)办法是(shi)采用(yong)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)化(hua)设(she)计,将主机(ji)(ji)(ji)与(yu)(yu)输(shu)入或输(shu)出配电(dian)(dian)(dian)分离开来(lai)。主机(ji)(ji)(ji)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)完(wan)成(cheng)主要的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)(neng)量转换(huan)及(ji)通讯(xun)控(kong)制(zhi)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng);配电(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)实(shi)现(xian)丰(feng)富的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)。主机(ji)(ji)(ji)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)通过(guo)标(biao)准(zhun)控(kong)制(zhi)接(jie)口(kou)实(shi)现(xian)对(dui)(dui)(dui)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li),如双电(dian)(dian)(dian)源自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)切换(huan)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),多回路输(shu)出功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),消防联动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)均应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)在(zai)(zai)(zai)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)中(zhong)实(shi)现(xian)。2)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)模(mo)块(kuai)(kuai)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)增加(jia)(jia)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)EPS用(yong)于紧急(ji)(ji)负(fu)载(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)供电(dian)(dian)(dian),其负(fu)载(zai)往(wang)往(wang)为非单一(yi)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)负(fu)载(zai),而这些负(fu)载(zai)在(zai)(zai)(zai)紧急(ji)(ji)情况下(xia)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)关(guan)键程度不尽相(xiang)同(tong)(tong),因(yin)(yin)此(ci),对(dui)(dui)(dui)于EPS来(lai)说,某些配电(dian)(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)至关(guan)重要。1)顺(shun)序(xu)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)诸如,EPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)负(fu)载(zai)很大一(yi)部(bu)分是(shi)感性(xing)冲(chong)击负(fu)载(zai),具(ju)有(you)较(jiao)大的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu),在(zai)(zai)(zai)选型时必须加(jia)(jia)大EPS容(rong)量,从而造成(cheng)设(she)备资源的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)浪费以及(ji)用(yong)户成(cheng)本的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)增加(jia)(jia)。实(shi)际上(shang)(shang),由于EPS负(fu)载(zai)供电(dian)(dian)(dian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)间(jian)断性(xing),EPS可(ke)(ke)增加(jia)(jia)一(yi)个8路或16路的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)可(ke)(ke)编程配电(dian)(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)接(jie)口(kou),通过(guo)对(dui)(dui)(dui)负(fu)载(zai)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)顺(shun)序(xu)、时间(jian)进(jin)行控(kong)制(zhi),可(ke)(ke)在(zai)(zai)(zai)很大程度上(shang)(shang)解(jie)决(jue)启(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)冲(chong)击电(dian)(dian)(dian)流(liu)和(he)加(jia)(jia)大选型容(rong)量的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)问题。2)部(bu)分卸(xie)载(zai)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)由EPS负(fu)载(zai)性(xing)质决(jue)定(ding),当过(guo)载(zai)发生时,需要EPS尽可(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)继续(xu)工(gong)作,而不能(neng)(neng)象(xiang)UPS那(nei)样进(jin)行保护性(xing)关(guan)机(ji)(ji)(ji),因(yin)(yin)此(ci),同(tong)(tong)样可(ke)(ke)通过(guo)配电(dian)(dian)(dian)管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)接(jie)口(kou)卸(xie)除次(ci)要负(fu)载(zai)。3)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)由于EPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)环(huan)境(jing)(jing)一(yi)般(ban)较(jiao)UPS恶(e)劣,为尽可(ke)(ke)能(neng)(neng)延长蓄电(dian)(dian)(dian)池的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)使用(yong)寿命,充电(dian)(dian)(dian)器(qi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)同(tong)(tong)时具(ju)备以下(xia)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng):(1)可(ke)(ke)设(she)定(ding)充电(dian)(dian)(dian)限流(liu);(2)可(ke)(ke)设(she)定(ding)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)终(zhong)止(zhi)电(dian)(dian)(dian)压;(3)具(ju)有(you)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)浮充功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng),充电(dian)(dian)(dian)机(ji)(ji)(ji)制(zhi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)符合(he)(he)DIN41773标(biao)准(zhun);(4)具(ju)有(you)浮充电(dian)(dian)(dian)压温度补偿功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng);(5)智能(neng)(neng)电(dian)(dian)(dian)池检测功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng);(6)深放(fang)(fang)电(dian)(dian)(dian)保护(可(ke)(ke)强制(zhi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)急(ji)(ji))。4)变频起(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)功(gong)(gong)(gong)能(neng)(neng)目前变频起(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)型EPS的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)设(she)计,如图8所(suo)示,主要着眼于解(jie)决(jue)较(jiao)大电(dian)(dian)(dian)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji),如电(dian)(dian)(dian)梯(ti)、水泵(beng)、风机(ji)(ji)(ji)等负(fu)载(zai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)起(qi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)冲(chong)击问题,但更为合(he)(he)理(li)(li)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)设(she)计,应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)该(gai)是(shi)在(zai)(zai)(zai)线(xian)(xian)式(shi)UPS与(yu)(yu)变频器(qi)技术的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)完(wan)美(mei)结(jie)(jie)(jie)合(he)(he)。在(zai)(zai)(zai)线(xian)(xian)式(shi)UPS具(ju)有(you)成(cheng)熟(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)整(zheng)流(liu)、电(dian)(dian)(dian)池管(guan)(guan)理(li)(li)技术;变频器(qi)具(ju)有(you)成(cheng)熟(shu)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)变频控(kong)制(zhi)技术,两者的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)有(you)机(ji)(ji)(ji)结(jie)(jie)(jie)合(he)(he)才是(shi)这一(yi)应(ying)(ying)(ying)(ying)用(yong)领域的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)最终(zhong)发展方向。

结语

    随着社会的进步和发展,环境要求的不断提高,消防意识也越来越被人们重视。EPS以其特有的优越性将被人们认识和采用,在一个工程中,它可以灵活的运用在消防供电回路末端、个别重要场合等多种情况。在选择应急电源上,不再只局限于柴油发电机了,因为它们各自的特点分别适用于不同的工程,这将为整个社会的安全提供更有力的保障。
 

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